To understand how we investigated bullshit empirically, consider
the following examples:
The invisible is beyond new timelessness.
As you self-actualise, you will enter into infinite empathy that
These statements are, definitively, bullshit. I can say this
directly because they were generated using two websites:
wisdomofchopra.com and the New Age Bullshit Generator. Both
select buzzwords at random and use them to form sentences. They
have no intended meaning and use vagueness to mask their vacuity.
They are bullshit.
Across four studies and with more than 800 participants, we found
that people consistently rate blatant bullshit such as this as at
least somewhat profound. More importantly, this tendency — which
we referred to as bullshit receptivity — was more common among
people who performed worse on a variety of cognitive ability- and
thinking-style tests, and who held religious and paranormal
beliefs. Put differently, more logical, analytical and skeptical
people were less likely to rate bullshit as profound, just as you